In order to design stormwater constructed wetlands (CW) for the improved efficiency in terms of nutrient reduction and flood attenuation, designers seek assistance from numerical models to justify different criteria. While there is a wide range of models based on physical and biogeochemical processes, there are a number of important criteria in CWs design that are poorly addressed in those models. Current models do not account for drag forces exerted by plants adequately and barely consider hyporheic exchange processes. Seasonal senescence of vegetation and its effect on nutrient cycling is another area that current models are incapable of addressing. Here we present an analysis of current capabilities and shortcomings in modelling the effect of macrophyte on the performance of the  stormwater CWs.


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