The need to understand the impact of urbanisation and changing land use on water and solute mass balances in the groundwater underlying urban areas has been increasingly recognised over the past 25 years. Groundwater resources are now included, for example, as part of integrated urban water management (IUWM).

The knowledge gained from this literature review has been synthesised into a conceptual model specific to Perth’s high groundwater conditions and urbanisation processes. Knowledge gaps have been identified, and recommendations made about how to address these gaps. Further, we suggest how new knowledge could assist design and planning of urban development in these areas of high groundwater.